Aristotle had similar views to Plato on the dangers of democracy and oligarchy. He feared that both would pit the rich against the poor. But he realized that such governments took many forms. The worst are those who do not have the rule of law. In lawless democracies, demagogues (leaders who appealed to emotions) took power. Russia has been called an oligarchy because, after the fall of communism, political power was concentrated in the hands of certain individuals who accumulated great wealth by exploiting the new system. A group of companies could be defined as an oligarchy if it meets all of the following conditions: George Bernard Shaw, in his play Major Barbara, premiered in 1905 and first published in 1907, defines a new type of oligarchy, namely the intellectual oligarchy that acts against the interests of ordinary people: „I would now give weapons to the common man against the intellectual man. I like ordinary people. I want to arm them against the lawyer, the doctor, the priest, the writer, the professor, the artist and the politician who, once in power, is the most dangerous, the most catastrophic and the most tyrannical of all fools, scoundrels and deceitful. I want democratic power strong enough to force the intellectual oligarchy to use its genius for the common good or perish.  However, some nations today are governed by governments in which a monarch has absolute or unlimited power.
Such nations are called absolute monarchies. Although governments and regimes are constantly changing in the global landscape, it is generally safe to say that most modern absolute monarchies are concentrated in the Middle East and Africa. The small oil-rich nation of Oman, for example, is an example of absolute monarchy. Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said has ruled this nation since the 1970s. Recently, the living conditions and opportunities of Omani citizens have improved, but many citizens living under the rule of an absolute ruler face oppressive or unjust policies based on the unchecked whims or political agendas of that ruler. Because in democracies where laws don`t come first, demagogues pop up. [T]he kind of democracy. [is] what tyranny is to other forms of monarchy. The spirit of both is the same, and they also wield despotic power over the best citizens. The decrees of the [demagogues] correspond to the edicts of the tyrant. Such a democracy is quite open to the objection that it is not a constitution at all; For where laws have no authority, there is no constitution.
The law must take precedence over everything. The accumulation of gold in the treasury of individuals is the ruin of timocracy; they invent illegal forms of spending; Because what does she or her wife care about the law? And then you see someone else get rich competing with him, and so the great mass of citizens become money lovers. And so, finally, instead of loving conflict and glory, people become lovers of trade and money; They honor and admire him, make him reign and dishonor the poor. French economist Thomas Piketty, in his 2013 book Capital in the Twenty-First Century, notes that „the risk of a drift into oligarchy is real and gives little reason to be optimistic about the direction the United States is taking.“  Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical, relying on obedience or public oppression. Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a meaning for the domination of the rich, for which another term used today is plutocracy. In the early 20th century, Robert Michels developed the theory that democracies, like all large organizations, tend to turn into oligarchies. In his „Iron Law of the Oligarchy,“ he proposes that the necessary division of labor in large organizations should lead to the establishment of a ruling class that is primarily concerned with protecting its own power. Aristotle said that „the rule of law. is preferable to that of any individual.
This is because individuals possess flaws and could tailor government to their own individual interests, whereas the rule of law is objective. Although people in the United States know Britain`s royal family the most, many other nations also recognize kings, queens, princesses, princesses, and other personalities with official royal titles. The power held by these positions varies from country to country. Strictly speaking, a monarchy is a government in which only one person (a monarch) reigns until his death or abdicates the throne. Typically, a monarch claims title rights by succession or as a result of some sort of divine appointment or calling. As mentioned above, monarchies in most modern nations are ceremonial remnants of tradition, and individuals holding titles in such sovereignties are often aristocratic figureheads. When. The rulers have great wealth and many friends, this kind of family despotism is akin to a monarchy; It is individuals who govern, not the law. It is the fourth type of oligarchy and is analogous to the latter type of democracy. In Philadelphia, about 2,000 years after the time of Plato and Aristotle, a group of men attempted to write a constitution.
George Washington, James Madison, and the other framers of the Constitution were dedicated to building a just government. The Americans had overthrown what they saw as a tyrannical British government. The authors wanted to create a national government free from tyranny and governed by the rule of law. Historical examples of oligarchies include Sparta (which excluded helots, who constituted the majority of the population, from voting); the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (where only the nobility could vote); the English parliamentary system and the execution of Charles I in 1649; and restricting the right to vote to male landowners in young democracies like the early United States. A modern example of a race-based oligarchy could be seen during the twentieth century in South Africa in the apartheid system, which became official government policy in 1948 and lasted until the democratic election of a government dominated by the black majority in 1994. Oligarchy (Greek: Ὀλιγαρχία, oligarkhía, de óligon, „little“ and arkho, „to rule“) is a form of government in which political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society. The term was used by Aristotle to refer to the despotic power exercised by a small privileged group for often corrupt or selfish purposes. In most classical oligarchies, ruling elites were recruited exclusively from a hereditary ruling caste whose members tended to exercise power in the interests of their own class. Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía) „to rule by a few“; from ὀλίγος (olígos) „little“ and ἄρχω (arkho) „to rule or command“) is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
These individuals may or may not be distinguished by one or more characteristics such as nobility, fame, wealth, education, or corporate, religious, political, or military control. Oligarchy means „the rule of a few“; Monarchy means „the reign of the One“. Early societies became oligarchies as a result of an alliance of rival tribal leaders or as a result of a caste system.