Manu Social Laws Pdf in Hindi

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It is difficult to apply the laws of Manu in today`s world because the conditions that exist today are very different from those that existed when they were formally codified. For example, our current laws do not allow gender bias or the imposition of restrictive laws on women or their freedom to choose their spouse, profession or lifestyle. Similarly, laws that govern people`s behaviour according to their caste or profession discriminate against current standards and cannot be enforced. Despite these problems and limitations, Manusmriti has historical value. Students of Hinduism still need to study it to understand the way of life of ancient India and how people ruled their lives with its help. Manu also elaborated on the nature of social life or the relations between the four social classes or varnas, namely priests (Brahmins), rulers and warriors (Kshatriyas), commoners (Vaishyas) and servants (Shudras). Manu`s ideas about Varnashrama are reflected in his criminal laws, especially with regard to morality and personal hygiene. It provides for different penalties for identical offences depending on the caste of the criminal and the victim, and as a general rule, Brahmins are exempt from the death penalty. Manu explained the different aspects of the law. He is also of the view that it is only in special circumstances, such as self-defence and similar situations, that the law can be taken into account. In addition to the death penalty, it had also prescribed other forms of punishment, but all sentences must be pronounced and carried out after careful consideration.

The king is the final authority to settle all disputes.24 Thus, Manusmriti is the first treatise to give a regular explanation of the legal system followed in the Dhamasastras, and provides a basis for legal interpretation with the help of learned Brahmins and experienced councils. It has also provided a basis for modern legal interpretation both in India and abroad, mainly in Europe. Kautilya also deals with many common aspects of the art of governing and law in his Arthasastra, but he differs from Manu in some key aspects. They do not agree on the imposition of the death penalty on Brahmins who have committed treason. Kautilya also shows more compassion towards Shudras and women than Manu. But it must also be emphasized that Manus Brahmin is the embodiment of the idealization of man, the symbol of the best and highest virtues that man could acquire. The Brahmin of Kau-tilya, on the other hand, although a superior and well-informed person, does not reach the sublime summit of perfection visualized by Manu. The two thinkers differ in terms of the role and status of a Brahmin.25 A criticism often leveled at Manu is his mixture of law and religion. Manu claimed that his laws are of divine origin, but this can rather be seen as a sign of the times in which he lived, and there is nothing fundamentally wrong with that.

In fact, most ancient peoples regarded their laws as a divine origin. In ancient Egypt, the law was attributed to the gods.19 The laws of Manusmriti and the code of Hammurabi claimed to be based on divine inspiration. Yahweh would have dictated the Ten Commandments of the Old Testament to Moses. Moreover, all the laws found in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers were called God`s direct revelation to Moses. In Hindu mythology, Manu is the ancestor of the human race. He is therefore Lord and Guardian of the living, and his name is associated with the most important codification of Hindu law, the Manava-dharma-sastra (Laws of Manu). This code, compiled by Brahmanical jurists between 200 BC. A.D. and 200 A.D. AD, is the oldest of the Vedic texts called Dharma Sutras, manuals on Dharma or duty.

Unlike previous texts which focus primarily on knowledge of Brahman and oneself, the Codex of Manu emphasizes duty in the social context. It defines the specific duties and responsibilities of the individual in relation to Varna or Class 4 – Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya or Sudra – and Asrama or state of life – disciple, housemaster, hermit of the forest or total ascetic classifications that remain fundamental to Hinduism to this day. Women`s issues are given the importance they deserve in Manusmriti. Manu examines women`s inheritance and property rights. He uses the term sridhan, which actually refers to particular types of goods given to a woman on certain occasions at different stages of her life. But the term Stridhan underwent a significant change in subsequent periods. There is also a discussion about the economic situation of widows. A widow had the right to keep her jewels. Manu also prescribes many do`s and don`ts for widows. It also refers to the Niyoga system. When Manu is compared to Kautilya, the latter has more liberal views on widows.

There are many passages in Manusmriti that say that women must be honored and their rights respected.18 But again, these are verses that reflect a desperate attitude toward Shudra women and people in the lower echelons of the social hierarchy. Perhaps this is why many historians, who have not examined the book in its proper perspective, have called Manu a reactionary legislator who advocated a social system based on oppression. The British, who ruled India, used Manusmriti as a standard for settling disputes between Hindus over inheritance issues, family disputes, marriage, and royal succession. Some Hindu scholars believe that the British found in the Manusmriti a useful tool to advance their interests or maintain social divisions among Hindus in order to consolidate their power. There is also a criticism that Manusmriti has long served the interests of the privileged classes and justified the oppression of women and lower castes by imposing unequal laws for different castes based on their status in society. Manu draws different professional varnas under the roof called shudras. The caste system that has gradually emerged in Indian society is the result of a long social development that has spanned centuries. Manu wanted to include the sometimes conflicting rights of different groups of people as part of varnashrama. It tried to create a pluralistic society by offering special hereditary professions and cultural freedom to the detribalized castes. Manu also mentions different tribes such as the Nishadas, Ambasthas, etc.

and prescribes the professions they could take. He even included foreign tribes and those living in border regions such as Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas, Pallavas, Kiratas in the category of Shudras and they were considered born twice.