The First Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that „Congress shall not enact any law respecting or prohibiting the free exercise of religion.“ The first part of this provision is known as the establishment clause and the second part is known as the freedom to exercise clause. Although the First Amendment refers only to Congress, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that the Fourteenth Amendment makes the free exercise and establishment clauses binding on the states (Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296, 60 pp. Ct. 900, 84 L. Ed. 1213 , and Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1, 67 pp. C. 504, 91 L.
Ed. 711 . Since that incorporation, a vast body of law has developed in the United States around the Establishment Clause and the free exercise, Clause.To determining whether an act of the federal or state government violates an individual`s right to religious freedom, the court must decide what constitutes a religion or religious activity under the First Amendment. The Supreme Court has interpreted religion to mean a sincere and meaningful faith that occupies a place in the life of its owner alongside the place God occupies in the lives of others. Religion or religious concept need not include belief in the existence of God or a Supreme Being to fall within the scope of the First Amendment.  Ibid. at p. 141 („We distinguish this case from a case in which an applicant alleges that truly comparable employees were treated differently after substantially similar conduct. Requiring a religious employer to explain why it treated differently two employees who committed essentially the same crime does not pose a threat to the employer`s ability to create and maintain communities of faith.
 See Fallon, 877 F.3d at 492-93 (recognizing that anti-vaccine beliefs, as supported by Christian scientists, may be part of a „broader religious faith“ and are therefore subject to religious adaptation under Title VII in certain circumstances, but conclude that the applicant`s beliefs are not considered religious because he „is merely concerned about the health effects of the flu vaccine, does not believe in the scientifically accepted opinion that it is harmless to most people and would like to avoid this vaccine. „), with Chenzira v. Cincinnati Child.`s Hosp. Med. Ctr., Nr. 1:11–CV–00917, 2012 WL 6721098, at *4 (S.D. Ohio Dec. 27, 2012) (stating that Title VII could cover a request for an exemption from the mandatory hospital vaccination policy due to vegan opposition to a vaccine tested on animals or containing animal by-products, if the applicant „supports veganism with sincerity equal to traditional religious views“), referring to essays on veganism and biblical excerpts). A Catholic worker requests a change of date in order to attend a service on Good Friday. A Muslim employee asks for an exemption from the company`s dress and grooming code that allows her to wear her headscarf, or a Hindu employee asks for an exemption that allows her to wear her bindi (religious marking of the forehead). An employee apologizes for the religious invocation offered at the beginning of company meetings because he opposes it on religious grounds or does not profess the religious sentiments expressed.
A follower of Native American spiritual beliefs requests unpaid leave to attend a ritual ceremony. A worker who identifies as a Christian but does not belong to any particular sect or denomination requests that work on his Sabbath be prohibited. Each of these requests relates to a „religious“ belief, observance or practice within the meaning of Title VII. Whether the employer is required to comply with these requests is discussed in the next section on religious accommodation.  Meyers, 906 F. Supp. at 1502 (ruling that religions appeal to „ultimate ideas,“ that is, „fundamental questions about life, purpose, and death,“ and that the multifaceted worship of marijuana is not a religion for First Amendment purposes), aff`d, 95 F.3d at 1483. Therefore, a sincere belief, which includes, among other things, matters of life after death, spirituality or soul, is considered a religion under Title VII. Adeyeye v.